Open Access Original Research Article

The research was held from September 2021 until January 2022 in Laboratory Livestock Product Technology Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia. Microencapsulation is a technique used to protect bacteria from harmful (extreme) environmental factors such as heating, freezing and low pH through a coating process or coating a core substance in this case LAB with a polymer wall layer. The purpose of this study was to obtain a combination of the use of gelatin and sodium alginate as a coating material in the encapsulation of Lactobacillus acidophilus FNCC 0051 and Streptococcus thermophilus FNCC 0040 using the emulsion technique based on its physical and microbiological properties. The research method used is a laboratory experiment using a completely randomized design (CRD) pattern with 3 treatments and 3 replications. The treatment using a combination of gelatin and sodium alginate consisted of T1 (1:1); T2 (1:2); T3 (1:3). Data were processed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA); If the analysis happens to show a significant difference (P<0.05) or a very highly significant difference (P<0.01), then the Duncan's Multiple Range Test was applied. Data from the results of microstructure testing using Scanning Electron Microscopy which were qualitative were analyzed descriptively. The results of the analysis show that encapsulation using a combination of gelatin and sodium alginate gives a very significant difference (P<0.01) to the value of encapsulation efficiency and does not give a significant difference (P>0.05) on microcapsule particle size and microcapsule particle size distribution, with percentages T1 97.43±0.31%, T2 98.50±0.48%, T3 99.00±0.44 %; T1 1.08±0.07 µm; T2 1.18±0.11 µm; T3 0.95±0.11µm; and T1 4.79±1.04; T2 2.53±2.16; T3 4.15±3.13 and microcapsules using SEM showed the microcapsules were round and smooth. The combination of gelatin and sodium alginate T3 (1:3) as a microcapsule material is a good alternative to protect lactic acid bacteria so that it can be applied in food products functional.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Crayfish (Procombarus clarkia) Supplementation on the Quality of Cookies from Wheat Flour

S. Ibrahim, E. D. Inelo, O. A. Kure

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 4, Page 10-19
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i430421

The utilization of composite flour from wheat and crayfish in the production of cookies was investigated. The wheat and crayfish flour were blended at the ratios of 100:0, 97.5:2.5, 95:5, 92.5:7.5, and 90:10, respectively. The cookies were evaluated for their proximate, minerals, physical and Sensory properties; The results of the proximate analysis showed an increase in the protein content (7.88-38.94%), moisture (4.61-6.27%), fiber (1.95-3.65%) and fat (0.98-3.11%) as the level of crayfish flour increased while there was a decrease in the carbohydrate content (77.94-40.45%) as the level of crayfish flour increased. The ash content ranged from 5.77 to 7.89%. The mineral compositions showed an increased trend in calcium, potassium, and sodium contents of the cookies as the crayfish supplementation increased but decreased phosphorus content as the level of crayfish supplementation increased. Iron ranged from 4.70-to 5.20. The calcium, potassium, iron, sodium and phosphorus ranged from 5.35-6.60 mg/100g, 650-930 mg/100g, 4.75-5.20 mg/100g, 670-870 mg/100g and 1577-23420 mg/100g respectively. The cookies' weight, diameter, and thickness decreased as the level of crayfish supplementation increased. There was a significant (p<0.05) difference observed in the appearance, flavor, taste, texture, crispness, and general acceptability of the cookies. Taste panel scores indicate that up to 10% addition of crayfish flour was acceptable in cookie preparation.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Banga sauce is the concentrated mesocarp juice of oil palm fruits. This work is aimed at evaluating the effect of blanching on the physicochemical characteristics, nutrient composition and sensory properties of ‘Banga’ sauce. Ripe and fresh fruits of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) were blanched in batches at 1000C for 0 to 25 min, extracted and concentrated as banga sauce. Samples were labeled A, B, C, D and E, for 0, 10, 15, 20 and 25 min blanching time, respectively. Moisture content was significantly (p<0.05) high (76.37 – 80.66%) and decrease significantly (p<0.05) with increase in blanching time. Percentage fat content of sample A was low (1.62%). Differences in protein content were not statistically significant. Carbohydrate content of sample E was 17.38%. Differences in peroxide value, iodine value and saponification value of the sauce were not statistically significant. Melting point, viscosity and density were respectively 36.44°C, 35.00 cSt and 0.9968, these values decrease significantly with increased blanching time. Solid fat content of unblanched banga sauce was significantly high (75%) at refrigeration temperature (5°C), with significantly lower value of 55% seen in sample E. Taste scores for samples B and C were significantly higher followed by sample E. Overall acceptability scores ranged from 7.49 – 7.81, with sample C given higher value, though not statistically difference.

Open Access Original Research Article

Thin Layer Modelling of Indirect and Mixed-Mode on-Farm Drying of Selected Vegetables

Nathaniel Oji, S. A. Okaiyeto, Y. A. Unguwanrimi

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 4, Page 43-54
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i430425

The thin layer drying characteristics of tomato and okra slices dried using mixed-mode on-farm solar dryer, indirect mode on-farm solar dryer and open sun drying. The tomato and okra slices dried faster when dried under the mixed-mode on-farm solar dryer. Drying time was reduced considerably using the on-farm solar dryers. The drying data were fitted into Lewis, Henderson and Pabis, and page equations. The Page model (R2=0.9365, 0.9623; X2= 0.0067, 0.0000579; RMSE= 0.0086, 0.0020 and MBE= -0.008, -0.002) gave the best prediction for the mixed-mode drying and indirect mode drying of tomato slices respectively. In the same vein Page model (R2=0.9202, 0.933o; X2= 0.00091, 0.000730; RMSE= 0.0265, 0.0244 and MBE= -0.0088, -0.0074) gave the best prediction for the mixed-mode drying and indirect mode drying of okra slices respectively. Effective moisture diffusivity of tomato slices varied between -7.4724 X 10-08 and -1.6439 X 10-07 while that of okra varied between -3.12 X 10-07 and -8.08 X 10-07. The indirect mode dryer gave the best quality of dried tomato and okra.

Open Access Review Article

Postharvest Handling Practices and Treatment Methods for Okra in Nigeria: A Review

Iorliam Iveren Blessing, Ugoo Tavershima Richard

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 4, Page 20-33
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i430422

Over the years, okra's demand has grown in Nigeria as a result of its economic and nutritional benefits. Unfortunately, due to inadequate handling and storage procedures, the okra pods produced deteriorates and loses value. To ensure that the wastage of this produced okra reduces, proper postharvest handling practices and treatment methods of okra should be properly adopted and deployed by okra farmers, especially in Nigeria. Harvesting/handling, cleaning/sorting, grading, packing, and storage are all key postharvest handling methods for preserving okra quality and increasing the shelf life of the okra pods after harvest. Moreover, efficient postharvest treatment procedures such as postharvest heat treatment, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)/modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), calcium chloride (CaCl2) application, edible coating, and sanitizing chemicals have been proven to improve the shelf life of Okra. From this review, it was concluded that the quality of the harvested fruits could be maintained and shelf life extended by simply using appropriate postharvest handling practices and treatment methods.