Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Evaluation of Gruels from Malted Sorghum- Moringa oleifera Flour Blends

E. C. Kodak, A. T. Girgih, M. I. Yusuf

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 8, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i830441

Aim: In this study, moringa seed flour was subjected to treatments (boiling and roasting) and used to fortify sorghum flour (Kunun Zaki flour).

Study Design: The blend ratios of Kunun Zaki flour and Moringa seed flour were 100:0 (control), 95:5, 90:5, 85:15, and 80:20 which were subjected to standard methods for evaluation of physicochemical properties of the flours while flour samples were further processed into a gruel and subjected to sensory evaluation.

Result: The results of the proximate analysis indicated an increase in moisture, protein, fat, ash, and fibre from 9.06 – 9.34, 11.12 – 13.09, 3.64 – 5.74, 2.95 – 3.32, 7.65 – 8.24% respectively and decreased in carbohydrate (65.53 – 60.62%). The pH increased (3.90 – 4.37) while the titratable acidity decreased (0.87 – 0.68). All the phytochemicals (alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, sterols, phenols, cyanides, and phytates) increased as the moringa seed flour was added. T The addition of moringa seed flour increased vitamins A, C, B1, B2, and B6. It also led to an increase in sodium and composite flour.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional Composition and Sensory Evaluation of Malted Sorghum (Sorghum bicolour) Beverage Fortified with Cocoa (Theobroma cacao)

Sunmonu Basirat Afolake Ojubanire, Ilufoye Taofikat, Adigun Musibau Adeleke, Agbaje, Rafiu, Oluwanisola Risikat Modupe, Ajobiewe Precious Omowumi

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 8, Page 15-25
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i830442

In this study, the fortification of malted sorghum with cocoa powder to produce non–alcoholic beverage was investigated. Cocoa powder was blended with malted sorghum in different proportion to produce fortified sorghum beverage products at ratio MS 10- (90% malted sorghum and 10% cocoa powder), MS 20 - (80 % malted sorghum and 20% cocoa powder), MS30 - (70% malted sorghum and 30% cocoa powder), MS 40 - (60% malted sorghum and 40%cocoa powder),  MS 50 - (50% malted sorghum and 50% cocoa powder)MS 60 - (Ovaltine beverage) as control. The vitamins, minerals, alkaloids, glucose, and sensory properties of all the fortified sorghum beverage samples were determined using standard methods. The range of results for vitamin B and C contents of the samples were (1.27mg/100g 1.97mg/100g) and (24.77mg/100g-54.48mg/100g) respectively. The respective values for glucose and alkaloids of the samples were (67.55%-71.02%) and (0.99%-3.13%).The contents of calcium (24.03mg/100g-274.26mg/100g), Magnesium (217.28mg/100g-322.97mg/100g), potassium (269.20mg/100g-699.63mg/100g), phosphorus (20.80mg/100g-81.91mg/100g) and zinc (2.21mg/100g-7.18mg/100g) of the malted sorghum beverage. The fortification of malted sorghum with cocoa powder enhanced the mineral content of the beverage except phosphorus. Also, the addition of cocoa powder had varying effects on the organoleptic perception of the developed food products. This work showed that all the samples were accepted by panelist with sample MS 20 - (80%malted sorghum and 20% cocoa powder) preferred to other samples except the control (ovaltine).

Aims: To investigate the effects of malted sorghum with cocoa powder to produce non–alcoholic beverage on vitamins, minerals, alkaloids, glucose contents and sensory properties.

Study Design: The vitamin, minerals, alkaloids, glucose, and sensory properties of all the fortified sorghum beverage samples were determined using standard methods.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Technology, Federal Polytechnic Offa, Kwara State, between June 2019 and July 2020.

Methodology: The method of Owolarafe et al. (2007) was adopted for production of cocoa powder. The method of Hallen et al. (2004) was used to produce malted sorghum flour. The method of Belšcak-Cvitanović et al. (2010) was adopted for the production of cocoa/sorghum beverage. Sample: Alkaloids in the sample were determined using the method of Harbone, 2003. Vitamin B and were determined, total glucose, minerals were analysed/calculated and sensory evaluation was also carried out.

Results: There was consistent increase in vitamin B12 of all the samples. The vitamin B content of all the samples ranged from (1.27mg/100g –1.79mg/100g). Sample MS 60 (Ovaltine beverage) which is the control sample had the highest value with (1.79mg/100g). The result of vitamin C content obtained from this study showed an inconsistent increase. The value obtained ranged from 24.77mg/100g to 54.48mg/100g.Fortifying malted sorghum with 50% cocoa powder improved the vitamin C content. The result obtained from this study showed that cocoa was a good source of alkaloids. Alkaloids values in this study were significantly (p<0.05) higher in fortified malted sorghum samples than in the control sample MS 60 (Ovaltine beverage) except sample MS 10 (90% malted sorghum and 10% cocoa powder which showed (0.99%).The glucose content obtained from this study indicated that there was an inconsistent increase among the samples. Glucose value ranged from (67.55% -71.02%). All the sample variations had increase in minerals studied except phosphorus which decreased with increase in percentage of malted sorghum. It can be deduced from the result of this study that sample MS20 was rated best after the control sample (ovaltine) while sample MS50 was rated lowest in terms of sweetness.

Conclusion: The fortification of malted sorghum with cocoa powder enhanced the nutritional content of the beverage. The fortified beverage had radical scavenging activity due the increase in antioxidant such as alkaloid and could be used for health promotion and disease prevention as an alternative to beverages with low nutritional / nutraceuticals value.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of roasting and γ-irradiated Peanuts on Toxicological Parameters of Wistar Rats

A. O. Alabi, K. O. Falade, O. A. Adeoti, O. G. Ohore

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 8, Page 26-37
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i830443

Effects of roasting and γ-irradiated (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 kGy) peanuts on toxicological parameters were evaluated through feeding of Wistar rats fed for a period of eight weeks. Physical appearance, body weight, hematological, serum biochemistry and tissue pathological parameters were determined using standard methods. During the eight weeks, Wistar rats showed good physical appearance and steady weight gain, and no mortality was recorded. Haematological analysis of the Wistar rats gave no indication of anemia; packed cell volume (41.09-46.14%), haemoglobin concentration (14.01-14.80 g/L), red blood cell (11.58-12.87 µ/L), mean corpuscular volume (30.58-37.85 fl), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (11.22-12.23 pg.). Serum blood parameters including albumin, globulin, creatine and blood urea nitrogen of Wistar rats fed with rat pellet, non- and γ-irradiated peanut were not significantly different. However, total protein (4.99-5.38 g/dL), cholesterol (55.67-60.50 mg/dL), alanine amino transferase (62.56-66.56 IU/L) and aspartate amino transferase (80.50-85.50 IU/L) increased significantly (p<0.05) during the period of evaluation. Histopathological examination of heart, liver, lungs, intestine, and spleen revealed diffuse mild degeneration of seminiferous tubular epithelium, mild congestion of hepatic sinusoids, mild hyperplasia of goblet cells and infiltration of the lamina propria by eosinophil and lymphocytes, and sub-capsular edema. Roasted γ-irradiated peanut did not cause changes of any toxicological significance in Wistar rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

The study aimed at the production and evaluation of breakfast cereals (flakes) formulated from composite blends of corn (Zea mays) flour and quinoa seed flour (Chenopodium quinoa); a pseudo cereal that has recently gained the interest of researchers due to its unique functional properties. Breakfast flakes were developed from formulations of WCF (100% whole corn flour); CQF (90:10 corn/quinoa flour); and QCF (50:50 corn/quinoa flour). The flakes were evaluated for their organoleptic acceptability, nutritional composition and functional properties. The result of the sensory evaluation showed that WCF was most acceptable in colour (4.90 \(\pm\)0.32) and was not significantly different (p>0.05) from CQF (4.10 \(\pm\)0.88). In terms of taste, texture, and aroma no significant differences (p>0.05) were recorded among all flakes blend. Overall, WCF was rated highest in acceptability at a mean score of 4.80 \(\pm\)0.42. However, QCF and CQF competed favorably with WCF in organoleptic quality. The result of the proximate analysis showed that compared with the control (WCF) which had a protein content of 7.36 \(\pm\)0.31%, the inclusion of quinoa enhanced the protein content in QCF and CQF at 9.40 \(\pm\)0.35% and 9.64 \(\pm\)0.03% respectively. Crude fibre, an essential component of functional foods was significantly enhanced with the inclusion of quinoa. In comparism with the control (9.02 \(\pm\)0.13%), the crude fibre content of CQF and QCF were 11.99 \(\pm\)0.12% and 15.99 \(\pm\)0.56% respectively. An increased inclusion of quinoa resulted in a corresponding decrease in carbohydrate (CHO) content as expected. The lowest CHO content was observed in QCF (49.66 \(\pm\)0.57%); while the highest CHO content was observed in WCF (62.50 \(\pm\)0.45%).  There was significant difference in all the functional properties observed except for the bulk density.  Quinoa fortification of corn flakes resulted in increased water absorption capacity (WAC) and oil absorption capacity (OAC). Hence QCF had the highest WAC and OAC at 35.33 \(\pm\)0.29% and 14.97 \(\pm\)0.15% respectively. In addition, QCF had the lowest emulsification capacity and swelling capacity at 41.43 \(\pm\)0.38% and 338.17 \(\pm\)0.19% respectively. The inclusion of quinoa in flakes could be beneficial as a breakfast cereal useful in human health and nutrition. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Quinoa Seed Powder for Preparation of Sugarfree Burfi by Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

Sonali Jaiswal, Priyanka Shankar

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 8, Page 52-60
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i830445

Burfi is Indian most famous milk sweet based on khoa. Quinoa is one of the world's most famous wellbeing food sources. It has gluten, high in protein and one of only a handful of exceptional plant food sources that contain each of the nine fundamental amino acids. Stevia also contains various therapeutic benefits like controls of diabetes, weight loss, regulate blood pressure, prevent cancer, lower cholesterol. This study was carried out to develop a value-added Burfi by replacement of khoa with quinoa flour as well as sugar with Stevia. The improvement of measure of quinoa and Stevia in burfi was finished by Response Surface Methodology strategy utilizing a product of plan master, rendition 8.0. The improvement was finished by focal composite rotatable plan (CCRD), in view of three variables Time, Ph, and Temperature. Design selected for optimization purpose was, for 2 independent variables at five levels of these 2 free factors were chosen based on research centre preliminaries. Level of Quinoa seed powder and stevia has been taken as the variables in planning the examinations and reactions were taken as different boundaries of tactile characteristics like surface, variety, flavour mouthfeel, generally speaking worthiness. There was a great variation observed in organoleptic properties of burfi due to variation in percentage of Quinoa and Stevia. Thirteen samples of burfi were prepared on the basis of CCRD design. Tangible assessment was directed utilizing a semi-prepared board comprising of 25 members, who were aware about the burfi flavour.