Fish Lipids Functionality in Health and Disease
Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 12,
Aim: This literature review discusses the roles of fish lipids in health and disease.
Duration and Location: It was done between July 2021 and September 2022 by the author at the Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Karatina University, Kenya.
Results: Adipocyte overabundance can result in cholesterol plaque deposition in arterial walls, which is a risk factor for diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Cholesterol is required for many cellular processes and its availability in oligodendrocytes may be the limiting factor in brain maturation, myelination and neurotransmission. The ω-3 and 6 fatty acids regulate cholesterol metabolism, blood clotting and control inflammation. They are important for brain activity, structure and function, form nerve cell membranes, and insulate neurons. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), decosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and decosapentaenoic acid (DPA) are associated with reduced risk of CVD, cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death by reducing small, dense, low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL) particles, which are more atherogenic and hence can shift some sdLDL to larger more buoyant LDL particles that are likely to reduce the risk of CVD. EPA is anti-atherosclerotic, anti-inflammatory, reduces platelet aggregation, increases vasodilation and lowers plasma triglycerides. DHA is necessary for cognitive development and visual function, while DPA reduces platelet aggregation, improves lipid metabolism, reduces endothelial cell migration and improves resolution of chronic inflammation.
Conclusion: Regular intake of EPA and DHA is important for nursing or pregnant women, as a child needs DHA to form the brain and other parts of the nervous system up to about 2 years of age. While regular intake of the ω-3 FA seems beneficial for brain health and alleviation of major mental-depression, further research is needed to better understand their roles in brain health and in related dystrophies. Also, the roles of DPA vis-a-vis those of EPA and DHA require further investigation.
- Marine omega-3 and 6 fatty acids
- brain development
How to Cite
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