##### Typology of Fermented Porridges and Socio-demographic Characteristics of Respondents in the Northern Part of Benin

Rachidatou Karimou, Haziz Sina, Essé A. Agossou, Bawa Boya, Sylvestre A. Assogba, Akim Socohou, Josiane A. Semassa, Eugène S. Attakpa, Farid Baba-Moussa, Adolphe Adjanohoun, Lamine Baba-Moussa

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 12, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i12601

Fermentation is an ancestral process and one of the most used economic methods in the preservation and transformation of cereal-based food raw materials. They are essentially rich in carbohydrates, but they can also be a source of micronutrients such as iron and are used in many traditional culinary preparations, in particular fermented porridges. The aim of this study is to identify the variability of fermented cereal-based porridges produced and consumed in northern Benin. Thus, 315 producers and consumers were randomly interviewed in nine localities of northern Benin. First, field surveys were carried out in the traditional areas of porridge production and consumption in the northern region of Benin in order to establish the consumption map of fermented porridges. Secondly, interviews and occasional conversations were used for sample collection as well as occasional interviews (individual survey). During our investigation, eight (koko, bobossou, gbangba, apkan, sagagnega, akloui, bita and fourra) porridge were reported. Corn, millet and sorghum are cereals that are used for proceeding those porridges. The interviewed people are predominantly (35.53%) between 18 and 25 years old of age followed by those aged between 25 and 31 years old (30.82%). Mostly (63.21%) women were interviewed with a sex ratio (M/F = 0.58) and involved in the production of traditional porridge. More than 36% of respondents had at least secondary education, 30.82% are uneducated, 22.64% have primary education and 10.06% had at least university level. A significant association was observed between the cereal used and the type of porridge (p<0.001). It can be seen that the marketing and consumption of different porridges is associated with different communes in northern Benin. The method of preserving these porridges and their processing differs from one producer to another or from one consumer to another. It also differs from one municipality to another.

##### Food Safety Cultures: A Study of Food Vendors in Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC), Nigeria

Fyne Okita Uwemedimo, Bassi Amos, Olokun Alexander Lanzema

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 12, Page 13-27
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i12602

Food is considered safe when it is free from substances that might compromise individual or populations' health and well-being, and is realizable with appropriate food safety cultures. This study accessed 150 food vendors across four of twelve political wards of the Abuja Municipal Area Council, AMAC who consented to the exercise. Results indicated no significant relationship between location with perception and practices of vendors on food safety, which had mean scores of 0.593, and 0.139 respectively. With p value (< 0.05), there is clearly a significant difference between the options measuring food safety (yes = good, and not sure = fair), and option no (poor) having the highest observed count of 78, the null hypothesis was rejected. As a result, it was concluded that, the food safety culture of food vendors in Abuja will not deliver safe foods to consumers. High market prices of food supplies, complex/cumbersome processes involved with meeting government regulations on food safety with weighted means of 3.3133 and 2.8667 respectively, were identified as the prevalent constraints on food safety cultures among food vendors in Abuja. In assuring safety, while maintaining the benefits of food vending to both sellers and buyers, emphasis should be given in to promoting food safety rather than mere revenue generation among both vendors and local government officials who register these vendors.

##### Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Mixed Fruit Juices Prepared from Blend of Pineapple, Pawpaw and Watermelon Fruits Juices

Chibuike Kalu Egbuta, Judith Uchenna Chima

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 12, Page 28-35
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i12603

This study investigated the production of mixed fruit juices from pawpaw, watermelon and pineapple fruits, pawpaw and watermelon fruits. Fresh ripe fruits (pineapple, watermelon and pawpaw and watermelon) were washed, manually peeled, deseeded, sliced, squeezed and sieved to obtain pineapple, watermelon and pawpaw juice pawpaw and watermelon juice. The prepared juices were pasteurized at 85°C for 15 s,sec., packaged in air-tight plastic cans. The pineapple, watermelon and pawpaw juice and watermelon juice were blended in ratios of 100:0:0;0:100:0; 0:100:0; 20:20:60:20; 33.33:33.33:33.33; 60:20:20 and 40:30:30%. The juice samples were evaluated for physicochemical and sensory characteristics using standard procedures. The sensory results showed colour rating of (6.33 - 7.22), flavour (6.11 – 7.78), taste (6.44 – 7.78), and general acceptability of(6.89 – 8.00). Sample 100% PIN was rated the best (8.00) in general acceptability. However, all the juice samples were generally accepted. The physicochemical results showed the following range of values for titrabletitra table acidity (0.60 - 1.21%), total soluble solids (8.10 - 15.55%), total sugar (7.22 - 9.51%), pH (4.05 - 5.30) and vitamin C (4.80-17.00 mg/100g). Generally, the juice samples were within the regulatory specifications, and acceptable. The study showed that fruit juice with good physicochemical and sensory qualities could be formulated using pineapple, watermelon and using pineapple, pawpaw and watermelon blend. The formulated fruit juices could find domestic and industrial applications.

##### Nutritional Quality of Sempol with Different Meat Variants

Abd. Ghafur Syah, Lilik Eka Radiati, Agus Susilo

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 12, Page 36-47
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i12604

Aims: This study aimed to examine the effect of different types of meat on the chemical and organoleptic properties of sempol.

Study Design and Methodology:  It employed an experimental method with Fully Randomized Design (FRD) in three treatments, each of which was applied to DA (chicken), DS (beef), and DK (lamb), and repeated four times each. The observed variables were chemical composition (moisture, protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate content), organoleptic quality (taste, aroma, texture, and color), microstructure, and element composition of sempol.

Place and Duration of Study: It was conducted in March - April 2022 at West Waru, Pamekasan for sempol production, Nutrition Laboratory of UMM for testing the chemical content, Bioscience Laboratory of Universitas Brawijaya for SEM testing.

Results: The study provided a significant effect (p<0.05) on the physicochemical composition except fat and protein (p>0.05), due to the physicochemical content of the meat used. The average physicochemical value of moisture was 58.22%, ash 3.06%, fat 23.76%, protein 10.81%, and carbohydrate 35.38%. The physicochemical content of sempol meets Indonesian National Standard (SNI) 2014 except for fat and carbohydrate. Based on sensory properties, panelists preferred sempol with chicken. The use of different types of meat in sempol did not provide a significant effect (p>0.05) on organoleptic taste, aroma, and texture, except color. Meanwhile, the microstructure of sempol beef has a better shape. The cavity surface tissue forms more uniformly and creates a fibrous three-dimensional metric compared to that of chicken and lamb. Some of the elements detected in sempol beef were carbon (C), oxygen (O), sodium (Na), silicon (Si), sulfur (S), chlorine (Cl), potassium (K), and zirconium (Zr). The most complete chemical elements was detected only in sempol lamb.

Conclusion: The use of different types of meat affects moisture, ash, and carbohydrate content, yet it does not affect protein and fat content. The organoleptic qualities of texture, taste, color and aroma are accepted by the panelists.

##### OSMO-Microwave Drying of Pineapple (Ananas comosus) Slices: Mass Transfer Kinetics and Product Quality Characterization

Md. Akhtaruzzaman, Md. Shakil, Md. Sazzad Hossain, Asraful Alam, Md. Hasan Tarek Mondal, Tanjina Akter, S. M. Shamiul Alam

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 12, Page 63-77
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i12606

This present research aimed to investigate the effect of slice thickness and concentration of the osmotic solution on mass transfer kinetics, the color profile of osmotically dehydrated pineapple slices, and product quality characteristics of osmotically dehydrated microwave-dried (ODMWD) products. Three slice thicknesses (0.5, 1, and 1.5 cm) and three concentrations of osmotic solution (40, 50, and 60 °Brix) were used. The mass transfer kinetics (moisture reduction behaviour, weight loss, solid gain), physicochemical properties (color, TSS, pH, titratable acidity, vitamin C, and total sugar), and total phenolic content of pineapple slices were analyzed. During osmotic dehydration, the moisture reduction behaviour of 0.5 cm slices was faster in all osmotic solutions, whereas water loss and solid gain were higher for all slices treated with 60 °Brix. Both slice thickness and concentration of the solution significantly affected the color of OD pineapple slices. For ODMWD products, total soluble solids (TSS), pH, ascorbic acid content, total sugar, and total phenolic content increased for all slice thicknesses with an increase in osmotic solution concentration, whereas titratable acidity exhibited the opposite result. The rehydration ratio was higher in 0.5 cm slices for all solution concentrations. According to the finding, pineapple fruits can be dehydrated by using 60 °Brix solution concentration with 0.5 cm slices for making dehydrated pineapple fruit, and osmotic dehydration followed by microwave drying of pineapple fruit could be used for value-added processing products.

##### Degradation of Milkfish Bone (Chanos- chanos Forsskal) with Pure Papain Enzyme Concentration and Heating Time

Muhammad Fitri, Sri Udayana Tartar, Sitti Nurmiah, Ikbal Syukroni

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 12, Page 78-85
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i12607

Aim: This study aimed to determine the physicochemical characteristics of calcium phosphate derivatives of milkfish bones (Chanos-chanos Forsskal) with treatment pure papain enzyme concentration and heating time.

Study Design: The experimental design used was a factorial complete randomized design, namely factor A = hydrolysis with the use of pure papain enzymes and factor B was heating time using a temperature of 60oC, each treatment was repeated 3 times.

Place and Duration of Study: Research was carried out from September 2018 to July 2019, Agroindustry Workshop, and Chemical Laboratory, Department of Fishery Product Processing Technology, Pangkep State Agricultural of Polytechnic, Physics Laboratory, Science Center, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Hasanuddin University, Chemistry Laboratory, Makassar State Islamic University, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory MIPA Lampung State University.

Methodology: Milkfish bones were added with distilled water and pure papain enzyme at pH 8 with a concentration of 4%, 6% and 8%, degraded by heating at 60°C for 6, 8, and 10 hours after extraction, result were then dried in oven at 50°C. After drying, it ground with a bone crusher. The flour was analyzed, namely: physical tests including yield, whiteness degree, proximate test including moisture content, ash content, protein content, fat content, calcium, phosphorus, functional groups using FTIR, crystallinity using XRD, morphology using SEM/EDS.

Results: The results of the analysis of the concentration of pure papain enzyme 8% with a heating time of 10 hours gave the best result, obtained 3.24% moisture content, 83.28% ash content, 10.28% protein, 3.20% fat, 49.30% calcium, 29.17% phosphorus, 7.16% yield, 88.68% whiteness. FTIR analysis has carboxyl groups (OH-), carbonate groups (CO32-) and phosphate groups (PO43-). These are the main components of hydroxyapatite formation where the phosphate absorption band spectra (PO43-) are at a wave frequency of 403.60 cm-1 with an intensity 36.568% is V3PO43- The crystallinity of calcium phosphate derivatives is 74.53% µm hydroxylapatite, 11.94% tricalcium phosphate µm, 13.53% dicalcium phosphate µm. Morphology of Calcium Phosphate Derivative Compounds using XRD, which showed a degree of crystallinity of 73.04% and a crystal size of 4.717 µm.

Conclusion: The result of the analysis obtained by the combination treatment of pure papain enzyme concentration of 8% with a heating time of 10 hours are the best of the other treatment.

##### The Effect of Addition of Basil Leaves Extract on the Quality of Nile Tilapia Filet at Low Temperature Storage (5 – 10$$^{\circ}$$C)

Haya Yumna Azzahra, . Junianto, Eri Bachtiar, Rusky Intan Pratama

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 12, Page 86-93
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i12609

This research aims to determine the most effective concentration level of basil leaves extract in preserving nile tilapia filet at low temperatures (5 – 10oC) to obtain optimal shelf life. This research was conducted at the Central Laboratory and Fishery Products Processing Laboratory, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Padjadjaran University started from June until October 2022. The research method used was an experimental method with four treatments by duplo. Fish filets were treated by soaking basil leaves extract with concentrations of 0%, 20%, 25%, and 30% for 30 minutes and stored at low temperature (5 – 10oC). Observations were made on days 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 8th, and 9th for nile tilapia filets with a concentration of 0% while treatment of basil leaves extract with concentrations of 20%, 25%, and 30% was carried out on days 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th. The parameters observed in this research included the calculation of the total number of bacteria (TPC) and degree of acidity (pH). The results showed that the use of basil leaves extract with a concentration of 25% was the most effective concentration because it was able to extend the shelf life until the 11th day with the number of bacteria 4.4 x 105 cfu/g and pH value of 6.65.

##### Fish Lipids Functionality in Health and Disease

Michael N. I. Lokuruka

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 12, Page 48-62
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i12605

Aim: This literature review discusses the roles of fish lipids in health and disease.

Duration and Location: It was done between July 2021 and September 2022 by the author at the Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Karatina University, Kenya.

Results: Adipocyte overabundance can result in cholesterol plaque deposition in arterial walls, which is a risk factor for diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Cholesterol is required for many cellular processes and its availability in oligodendrocytes may be the limiting factor in brain maturation, myelination and neurotransmission. The ω-3 and 6 fatty acids regulate cholesterol metabolism, blood clotting and control inflammation. They are important for brain activity, structure and function, form nerve cell membranes, and insulate neurons. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), decosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and decosapentaenoic acid (DPA) are associated with reduced risk of CVD, cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death by reducing small, dense, low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL) particles, which are more atherogenic and hence can shift some sdLDL to larger more buoyant LDL particles that are likely to reduce the risk of CVD. EPA is anti-atherosclerotic, anti-inflammatory, reduces platelet aggregation, increases vasodilation and lowers plasma triglycerides. DHA is necessary for cognitive development and visual function, while DPA reduces platelet aggregation, improves lipid metabolism, reduces endothelial cell migration and improves resolution of chronic inflammation.

Conclusion: Regular intake of EPA and DHA is important for nursing or pregnant women, as a child needs DHA to form the brain and other parts of the nervous system up to about 2 years of age. While regular intake of the ω-3 FA seems beneficial for brain health and alleviation of major mental-depression, further research is needed to better understand their roles in brain health and in related dystrophies. Also, the roles of DPA vis-a-vis those of EPA and DHA require further investigation.