Evaluation of Phenolic and Aromatic Compound of Placenta Three Cocoa Varieties (Theobroma cacao L) Cultivated in Côte d’Ivoire

Zoro Armel Fabrice *

Biotechnology and Valorization of Agroresources and Natural Substances Laboratory, PELEFORO GON COULIBALY University, BP 1328 Korhogo, Côte d’Ivoire and Biotechnologie Laboratory, Félix Houphouet-Boigny University, 22 BP 582 Abidjan 22, Côte d’Ivoire.

Oussou Kouamé Fulbert

Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Cukurova, 01330 Adana, Turkey.

Touré Abdoulaye

Biotechnology and Valorization of Agroresources and Natural Substances Laboratory, PELEFORO GON COULIBALY University, BP 1328 Korhogo, Côte d’Ivoire and Biochimic Pharmacodynamy Laboratory, Félix Houphouet-Boigny University, 22 BP 582 Abidjan 22, Côte d’Ivoire.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Cocoa placenta obtained after the removal of beans is a huge cocoa by-product usually regarded as waste by farmers. Cocoa placenta from three cocoa varieties: forastero, criollo and national were investigated to provide more comprehensive informations on aroma and phenolic compounds present in these cocoa placenta. For this, these 3 cocoa placenta widely produced in Côte d’Ivoire were oven-dried (50°C/3 days) after fermentation before analysis of phenolics and aromatics compounds. A total of 14 phenolic compounds were identified in all cocoa placenta samples with the highest amount observed in criollo (212.99 mg/g). Kaempferol pentosyldihexoside was found as the major phenolic substance in all the samples with an important amount in criollo (54.63 mg/g). According to the findings of compounds volatiles profile, a total of 48, 55 and 60 aroma constituents with variable groups including esters, alcohols, aldehydes, terpenes, furans, acids, volatile phenols, hydrocarbons, and ketones were detected in criollo, forastero and national, respectively. The highest total amount was detected in national placenta (406.76 mg/kg). 2-hexanol (73.56 mg/kg), 3-Methyl-3-pentanol (19.96 mg/kg), Methoxy-1-butanol (11.75 mg/kg) was the prominent volatile substance in all cocoa placenta. The results of the present study clearly demonstrate that cocoa placenta is a potential by-product that could be used in animal feed or human food formulation in order to be valued in the dietetic field.

Keywords: Cocoa placenta, phenolics, aromatics, profil, placenta three

How to Cite

Fabrice , Z. A., Fulbert , O. K., & Abdoulaye , T. (2023). Evaluation of Phenolic and Aromatic Compound of Placenta Three Cocoa Varieties (Theobroma cacao L) Cultivated in Côte d’Ivoire. Asian Food Science Journal, 22(6), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.9734/afsj/2023/v22i6636


Download data is not yet available.


ICCO. Quarterly Bulletin of Cocoa Statistics; 2017.

Available:https://www.icco.org/about-us/icco-news/384-february2018- quarterly-bulletin-of-cocoa-statistics.html

Vásquez ZS, de Carvalho Neto DP, Pereira GV, Vandenberghe LP, de Oliveira PZ, Tiburcio PB, Soccol CR. Biotechnological approaches for cocoa waste management: A review. Waste Management. 2019;90:72-83.

Cádiz-Gurrea MdlL, Fernández-Ochoa Á, Leyva-Jiménez FJ, Guerrero-Muñoz N, Villegas Aguilar MdC, Pimentel-Moral S, Segura-Carretero A. LC-MS and spectrophotometric approaches for evaluation of bioactive compounds from Peru cocoa by-products for commercial applications. Molecules. 2020;25(14): 3177.

Sobamiwa O, Longe O. Utilization of cocoa-pod pericarp fractions in broiler chick diets. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 1994;47(3-4):237-244.

Kone K. Akueson K. Norval G. On the production of potassium carbonate from cocoa pod husks. Recycling. 2020;5(3): 23.

Liu RH. Health-promoting components of fruits and vegetables in the diet. Adv Nutr An Int Rev J. 2013;4(3):384S–392S.

Andarwulan N, Kurniasih D, Apriady RA, Rahmat H, Roto AV, Bolling BW. Polyphenols, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid in underutilized medicinal vegetables. J Funct Foods. 2012;4(1):339–47.

Liu RH. Potential synergy of phytochemicals in cancer prevention: mechanism of action. J Nutr. 2004;134(12 Suppl):3479S–3485S.[Cited 2017 Sep].

Yang Z, Baldermann S, Watanabe N. Recent studies of the volatile compounds in tea. Food Research International. 2013;53:585-599.

Martínez R, Torres P, Meneses M, Figueroa J, Pérez-Álvarez J, Viuda-Martos M. Chemical, technological and in vitro antioxidant properties of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) co-products. Food Research International. 2012; 49(1):39-45.

Goude KA, Adingra KMD, Gbotognon OJ, Kouadio E. Biochemical characterization, nutritional and antioxidant potentials of cocoa placenta (Theobroma Cacao L.). Annals Food Science and Technology. 2019;20(3):603-613.

Singleton VL, Orthofer R, Lamuela Raventós RM. Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of folin-ciocalteu reagent. Methods Enzymol. 1999;299:152–78.

Aydin E. Evaluation of phenolic acid, total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity and in-vitro simulated bioaccessibility of healthy snack: Aromatized pumpkin chips. Emirates J Food and Agric; 2022.

Kelebek H, Sevindik O, Selli S. LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS-based phenolic profiling of St John’s Wort Teas and their antioxidant activity: Eliciting infusion induced changes. J Liquid Chroma & Related Technol. 2019; 42:(1-2):9-15.

Mc Lafferty FW. Wiley registry of mass spectral data (7th Ed.), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., New York (with NIST 2005 spectral data); 2005.

Özen M, Özdemir N, Filiz BE, Budak NH, Kök-Taş T. Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) vinegars produced from fresh fruit or juice concentrate: Bioactive compounds, volatile aroma compounds and antioxidant capacities. Food Chem. 2020;309:125664.

Özdemir N, Pashazadeh H, Zannou O, Koca I. Phytochemical content, and antioxidant activity, and volatile compounds associated with the aromatic property, of the vinegar produced from rosehip fruit (Rosa canina L.). LWT. 2022; 154:112716.

Karamaæ M, Kosiñska A, Pegg RB. Content of gallic acid in selected plant extracts. J Food Nutr Sci. 2006;15(1):55–8.

Alvarado-Ramírez M, Jesús Santana-Gálvez, Arlette Santacruz, Luis Diego Carranza-Montealvo, Erika Ortega-Hernández, Joaquín Tirado-Escobosa, Luis Cisneros-Zevallos, Daniel A. Jacobo-Velázquez. Using a functional carrot powder ingredient to produce sausages with high levels of nutraceuticals. Journal of Food Science. 2018;83:9.

Pandey K, Rizv S. Plant polyphenols as dietary antioxidants in human health and disease. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2009;2(5): 270–8.

Aganga AA. Mosase KW. Tannins content, nutritive value and dry matter digestibility of Lonchocarpus capassa, Ziziphus mucronata, Sclerocarya birrea, Kirkia acuminata and Rhus lancea seeds. Ani Feed Scie and Tech. 2003;91:107-113.

Pedneault K. Leonharts A. Gosselin A. Ramputh A. Arnason JT. Influence de la culture hydroponique de quelques plantes médicinales sur la croissance et la concentration en composés secondaires des organes végétaux. Texte de conférence. Canada. 2001;1-5.

Tajik N, Tajik M, Mack I, Enck P. The potential effects of chlorogenic acid, the main phenolic components in coffee, on health: A comprehensive review of the literature. Eur J Nutr. 2017;56(7):2215–44.

Oussou KF, Guclu G, Sevindik O, Starowicz M, Kelebek H, Selli S. Comparative Elucidation of Aroma, Key Odorants, and Fatty Acid Profiles of Ivorian Shea Butter Prepared by Three Different Extraction Methods. Separations. 2022; 9(9):245.

Kesen S, Kelebek H, Sen K, Ulas M, Selli S.GC–MS–olfactometric characterization of the key aroma compounds in Turkish olive oils by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis. Food Research International. 2013;54?(2).

Frauendorfer and Peter Schieberle. Changes in Key Aroma Compounds of Criollo Cocoa Beans during Roasting. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2008;56:10244–10251.

Ullrich L, Neiens S, Hühn T, Steinhaus M, Chetschi I. Impact of water on odor-active compounds in fermented and dried cocoa beans and chocolates made thereof. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2021;69(30):8504-8510.

Rottiers H, Sosa DAT, De Winne A, Ruales J, De Clippeleer J, De Leersnyder I, De Wever J, Everaert H, Messens K, Dewettinck K. Dynamics of volatile compounds and favor precursors during spontaneous fermentation of fne favor Trinitario cocoa beans. European Food Research and Technology. 2019;245: 1917–1937.


Rodriguez-Campos J, Escalona-Buendía HB, Contreras-Ramos SM, Orozco- Avila I, Jaramillo-Flores E, Lugo-Cervantes E. Effect of fermentation time and drying temperature on volatile compounds in cocoa. Food Chemistry. 2012;132(1).

Amanpour A, Zannou O, Kelebek H, Selli S. Elucidation of infusion induced changes in the key odorants and aroma profile of Iranian Endemic Borage (Echium amoenum) Herbal Tea. J. Agric. Food Chem; 2019.

Zannou O, Kelebek H, Selli S. Elucidation of key odorants in Beninese Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) infusions prepared by hot and cold brewing. Food Research International. 2020;133.

Duan H, Barringer SA. Changes in furan and other volatile compounds in sliced carrot during air-drying. J. Food Process. Preserv. 2012;36(1):46-54. DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-4549.2011.00550.x

Mehmet TA, Hasim K, Serkan S. Elucidation of aroma-active compounds and chlorogenic acids of Turkish coffee brewed from medium and dark roasted Coffea arabica beans. Food Chemistry. 2021;338:2021.