Evaluation of Phenolic and Aromatic Compound of Placenta Three Cocoa Varieties (Theobroma cacao L) Cultivated in Côte d’Ivoire

Zoro Armel Fabrice *

Biotechnology and Valorization of Agroresources and Natural Substances Laboratory, PELEFORO GON COULIBALY University, BP 1328 Korhogo, Côte d’Ivoire and Biotechnologie Laboratory, Félix Houphouet-Boigny University, 22 BP 582 Abidjan 22, Côte d’Ivoire.

Oussou Kouamé Fulbert

Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Cukurova, 01330 Adana, Turkey.

Touré Abdoulaye

Biotechnology and Valorization of Agroresources and Natural Substances Laboratory, PELEFORO GON COULIBALY University, BP 1328 Korhogo, Côte d’Ivoire and Biochimic Pharmacodynamy Laboratory, Félix Houphouet-Boigny University, 22 BP 582 Abidjan 22, Côte d’Ivoire.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Cocoa placenta obtained after the removal of beans is a huge cocoa by-product usually regarded as waste by farmers. Cocoa placenta from three cocoa varieties: forastero, criollo and national were investigated to provide more comprehensive informations on aroma and phenolic compounds present in these cocoa placenta. For this, these 3 cocoa placenta widely produced in Côte d’Ivoire were oven-dried (50°C/3 days) after fermentation before analysis of phenolics and aromatics compounds. A total of 14 phenolic compounds were identified in all cocoa placenta samples with the highest amount observed in criollo (212.99 mg/g). Kaempferol pentosyldihexoside was found as the major phenolic substance in all the samples with an important amount in criollo (54.63 mg/g). According to the findings of compounds volatiles profile, a total of 48, 55 and 60 aroma constituents with variable groups including esters, alcohols, aldehydes, terpenes, furans, acids, volatile phenols, hydrocarbons, and ketones were detected in criollo, forastero and national, respectively. The highest total amount was detected in national placenta (406.76 mg/kg). 2-hexanol (73.56 mg/kg), 3-Methyl-3-pentanol (19.96 mg/kg), Methoxy-1-butanol (11.75 mg/kg) was the prominent volatile substance in all cocoa placenta. The results of the present study clearly demonstrate that cocoa placenta is a potential by-product that could be used in animal feed or human food formulation in order to be valued in the dietetic field.

Keywords: Cocoa placenta, phenolics, aromatics, profil, placenta three


How to Cite

Fabrice , Z. A., Fulbert , O. K., & Abdoulaye , T. (2023). Evaluation of Phenolic and Aromatic Compound of Placenta Three Cocoa Varieties (Theobroma cacao L) Cultivated in Côte d’Ivoire. Asian Food Science Journal, 22(6), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.9734/afsj/2023/v22i6636

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