Physico-chemical Characteristics and the Effects of Processing Methods on the Nutritional and Anti-nutritional Quality of Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill)
Issue: 2023 - Volume 22 [Issue 10]
Tanzania Agricultural Research Institute (TARI) Ukiriguru, P.O. Box 1433, Mwanza, Tanzania.
Anju K Dhiman
Department of Food Science and Technology, Dr Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, India.
Tanzania Agricultural Research Institute (TARI) Ukiriguru, P.O. Box 1433, Mwanza, Tanzania.
Abdulsudi Issa-Zacharia *
Department of Food Science and Agro-processing, School of Engineering and Technology, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O. Box 3006, Chuo Kikuu, Morogoro, Tanzania.
*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The present investigation was carried out to determine the physico-chemical characteristics and effects of processing methods on the nutritional and anti-nutritional quality of soybeans. Soybean seeds were analysed using physico-chemical approaches, in order to obtain a detailed profile on these qualities. The effects of processing methods on the nutritional and anti-nutritional quality of soybean had an impact on the nutritional and anti-nutritional values. Soybeans were subjected to different processing methods which were sorted, washed, dried, and milled into flour (Sample A- Control), soaked in water (1:3) for 12h, mechanically dried at 60 ± 2 oC for 10 h and milled into flour (Sample B), soaked in water (1:3) for 12h, sprouted 72 h, mechanically-dried at 60 ± 2 oC for 10 h, roasted for 3 min and milled into flour (Sample C), boiled for 30 min in an open lid, mechanically-dried at 60 ± 2 oC for 10 h, roasted for 3 min and milled into flour (Sample D). The study revealed that raw soybean seeds had 90.43 ±3.93 g seed weight, 6.31 ± 0.41 mm length, 5.50 ± 0.29 mm breadth,4.58 ± 0.35 mm height, 0.88 ± 0.04 mm sphericity, 753.01 ± 6.62 kg/ m3 bulk density, 1181.03 ± 11.72 kg/ m3 true density, 36.33 ± 0.79 % porosity, 0.13 ± 0.005 g/seed hydration capacity, 1.25 ± 0.07 hydration index, 0.12 ± 0.01 mL swelling capacity, 1.62 ± 0.05 swelling index. The colour was recorded to be (L* 59.52, a* 8.97, b* 34.01), Chroma (c*) 35.17, and hue angle (ho) 9.84. After processing, moisture content increased (10.61 - 12.43 %), crude protein (42.97– 47.87 %), crude fibre (9.44 - 11.57 %), ascorbic acid (5.38 - 11.65 mg/ 100 g), and ash content (4.84-5.99 %) while total carbohydrates and total energy decreased significantly (17.70 - 15.92 %) and (439.69 - 397.82 %), respectively. Similarly, the phytic acid content decreased from 8.12 to 5.19 mg/100 g while the tannin decreased from 25.34 to 18.57 % and the protease inhibitor decreased from 7.12 to 5.01 %. The overall results of the current study revealed that the processing methods of soybeans had an impact on the nutritional and anti-nutritional values. Further, the study showed that processing methods can significantly improve the nutritional qualities of soybeans while substantially reducing their anti-nutritional properties, thereby boosting the nutrients' bioavailability.
Keywords: physico-chemical characteristics, processing methods, nutritional values, anti-nutritional quality, soybean
How to Cite
Duranti M. Grain legume proteins and nutraceutical properties. Fitoterapia. 2006;77(2):67–82.
Pasqualone A, Costantini M, Coldea TE. Summo C. Use of legumes in extrusion cooking: A Review. Food. 2020;9(7):958. Available:https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070958.
Abdel-Aal ESM. Processing pulses to enhance bioactive and anti-nutritional attributes. Guelph, Ontario, Canada: Guelph Research and Development Centre. A Mini-Review; 2016.
Available:http://anadianfoodbusiness.com/2016/06/20/processing-pulses-toenhance-bioactiveand-anti-nutritional-attributes/ Accessed on 2 November 2020.
Muzquiz M, Varela A, Burbano C, Cuadrado C, Guillamón E, Pedrosa MM. Bioactive compounds in legumes: Pronutritive and antinutritive actions. Implications for nutrition and health. Phytochemistry Reviews. 2012;11:227–244.
Puozaa DKR, Oteng-Frimpong S, Lamini YB, Kassim Issah AR, Masawudu AR, Denwar NN. Quality of seed lots of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) genotypes produced in a guinea savanna agroecology of Ghana. Afr. J. Food Agric. Nutr. Dev. 2023;23(6):23800-23816.
Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. FAOSTAT; 2017.
Available:http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC Accessed 31 May 2023.
Fabiyi EF. Hamidu BM. Adoption of improved technologies in soybean processing utilization in Tafawa Balewa Local Government Area of Bauchi State, Nigeria. Afr. J. Food Agri. Nutr. Dev, 2011;11:4527-4537.
Goyal R, Sharma S.Gill BS. Variability in the nutrients, antinutrients and other bioactive compounds in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] genotypes. Journal of Food Legumes. 2012;25:314-320.
Chuwa C, Saidia P, Dhiman AK. Study on the effect of different treatments on the nutritional quality of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) flour. The Pharma Innovation Journal. 2022;11(11):781-786.
Sharma S, Kaur M, Goyal R. Gill BS. Physical characteristics and nutritional composition of some new soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) genotypes, Journal of Food Science and Technology; 2011.
DOI: 10.1007/s13197-011-0517- 7.
Roy F, Boye JI, Simpson BK. Bioactive proteins and peptides in pulse crops: Pea, chickpea and lentil. Food Research International. 2010;43:432-442.
Prodanov M, Vierra I, Vidal-Valverde C.H. Influence of soaking and cooking on thiamin, riboflavin and niacin contents in legumes. Food Chemistry. 2004 84:271-277.
Okagbare GO, Akpodiete OJ. Soybean in pre ruminant nutrition: A review. Nig. J. Anim. Prod. 2006;33: 83-86.
Mohsenin NN. Physical Properties of Plant and Animal Materials. Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, New York; 1970.
Varnamkhasti MG, Mobli H, Jafari A, Keyhani AR, Soltanabadi MH, Rafiee S, Kheiralipour K. Some physical properties of rough rice (Oryza sativa) grain. Journal of Cereal Science. 2008;47:496-501.
Pradhan RC, Naik SN, Bhatnagar N, Swain SK. Moisture-dependent physical properties of Karanja (Pongamia pinnata) kernel. Industrial Crops and Products. 2008;28(2): 155-161.
Sood M, Malhotra SR, Sood BC. Effect of processing and cooking on proximate composition of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) varieties. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2002;39:69-71.
Ranganna S. Handbook of analysis and quality control for fruit and vegetable products. Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd., New Delhi; 2009.
Goswami D, Gupta RK, Mridula D, Sharma M, Tyagi SK. Barnyard millet based muffins: Physical, textural and sensory properties. LWT-Food Science and Technology. 2015;64(1):374-380.
AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International. 19th ed. Gaitherburg, Washington DC, USA; 2012
AOAC. Association of Official Analytical Chemists - Official methods of analysis. 18th edn. Washington DC; 2010.
AOAC. Association of Official Analytical Chemists - Official Methods of analysis. 6th edn. Inc, USA IL; 2009.
AOAC. Association of Official Analytical Chemists - Official methods of analysis 18th edn. Gaithersburg, M.D. USA; 2006.
AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International. 11th ed. Gaitherburg, Washington DC, USA; 2004.
Makkar HP, Goodchild AV, El‐Moneim AMA. Becker K. Cell‐constituents, tannin levels by chemical and biological assays and nutritional value of some legume foliage and straws. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 1996;71(1):129-136.
Young SM. Greaves JS. Influence of variety and treatment on phytic content of wheat. Food Res, 1990;5:103-105.
Sharma S, Goyal R, Barwal S. Domestic processing effects on physicochemical, nutritional and anti-nutritional attributes in soybean (Glycine max L. Merill). International Food Research Journal. 2016;20(6):3203-3209.
Kuzniar P, Szpunar-Krok E, Findura P, Buczek J, Bobrecka-Jamro D. Physical and chemical properties of soybean seeds determine their susceptibility to mechanical damage. Zemdirbyste-Agriculture, 2016; 103:183-192.
Nwakonobi TA. Idike FI. Physical properties of soybean (A research report communication). Nigerian Journal of Technology. 2002;21(1):90-91.
Wandkar SV, Ukey PD, Pawar DA. Determination of physical properties of soybean at different moisture levels. Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal. 2012;14(2):138-142.
Sumangala S. Kulkarni UN. Acceptable qualities of black soybean genotypes (Glycine max). Pharm Innov. 2019;8:1125-8.
Pele GI, Ogunsu AO, Adepeju AB, Esan YO. Oladiti EO. Effects of processing methods on the nutritional and anti-nutritional properties of soybeans (Glycine max). African Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2016;7:009-012.
Chuwa C, Dhiman AK. Mwita MA. Prevent osteoporosis with calcium rich foods: Part 1. Indian Farmer. 2022;9(06):252-254.
Intipunya P, Bhandari BR. Chemical deterioration and physical instability of food powders. In L.H. Skibsted, J. Risbo, and M.L. Andersen (Eds.), Chemical Deterioration and Physical Instability of Food and Beverages Cambridge, U.K. Woodhead Publishing. 2010:663-700.
Ramadan N, Sedki A, El-Gabry H. Morsy W. Response of APRI growing rabbits to diets containing different levels of digestible energy and crude protein. Journal of Animal and Poultry Production. 2012;3(11):451-465.
Onimawo I. Asugo S. Effects of germination on the nutrient content and functional properties of pigeon pea flour. J Food Sci Technol. 2004;41(2):170-174.
Uppal V, Bains K. Effect of germination periods and hydrothermal treatments on in vitro protein and starch digestibility of germinated legumes. Journal Food Science and Technology,.2012;49(2):184-191.
Jirapa P, Normah H, Zamaliah MM, Asmah R. Mohamad K. Nutritional quality of germinated cowpea flour (Vigna unguiculata) and its application in home-prepared powdered weaning foods. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 2001;56:203-216.
Shah SA, Zeb A, Masood T, Noreen N, Abbas SJ, Samiullah M. Effect of sprouting time on biochemical and nutritional qualities of mung bean varieties. African Journal of Agricultural. Research. 2011;6(22):5091-5098.
Khyade VB. Jagtap SG. Sprouting exerts a significant influence on the antioxidant activity in selected pulses (black gram, cowpea, desi chickpea and yellow mustard). World Scientific News. 2016;35: 73-86.
Ranhotra GS, Loewe RJ, Lehman TA. Breadmaking quality and nutritive value of sprouted wheat. J Food Sci Nutr. 1977;42:1373.
Chinma CE, Adedeji OE, Etim II, Aniaka GI, Mathew EO. Ekeh UB, Anumba NL. Physicochemical, Nutritional, and Sensory Properties of Chips Produced from Germinated African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) LWT Food Sci. Techol. 2021;136:110330.
Osman MA. Effect of different processing methods on nutrient composition, antinutritional factors and in vitro protein digestibility of Dolichos lablab bean (Lablab purpureus (L.) sweet). Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2007;6:299-303.
Basulto FS, Duch ES, y-Gi,l FE, Diaz Plaza R. Saavedra AL. Postharvest ripening and maturity indices for Maradol papaya. Interciencia. 2019;34:583-588.
Chuwa C. Kamal S. Effect of Processing Methods on the Nutritional Quality and Utilization of Ripe Papaya (Carica papaya L.). Journal of Scientific Research & Reports. 2022;28(1):54-67.
Meena A, Jawake P, Jain SK, Mudgal VD, Saloda MA. Sharma KC. Foam mat drying of papaya. Journal of Agricultural Engineering. 2014;51:9-18.
Suman Khetarpaul N, Sharma DK. Assessment of physical characteristics of soybean seeds. Annals of Agriculture Biological Research. 2016;21:183-186.