Open Access Minireview Article

Bushmeat Consumption in Africa: A Microbiological Safety Challenge?

Gwladys Gloria Amen Ahouanse , Abdulsudi Issa-Zacharia , Nuria Majaliwa

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 22, Issue 9, Page 149-157
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2023/v22i9667

Objective: This review analyzed the microbiological safety of bushmeat consumed in Africa over the past decades.

Methodology: Previous Studies mainly focused on large animals like antelopes and smaller ones like grasscutter. Most microbes studied were similar to those in domestic animal meat, except for rare pathogens such as Salmonella spp, E.coli. Sampling, experiments, and microbe prevalence varied among studies.

Results: All studies confirmed the presence of zoonotic pathogens dangerous to human beings. Therefore, more investigations are needed, especially for the chronic and severe cases of pathogens, since only few studies have addressed the bushmeat's microbiological safety in Africa.

Conclusion: Efforts should be made to improve bushmeat safety and public health in Africa. New policies and public regulations must be developed and implemented to ensure hygienic and legal bushmeat production in Africa.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-chemical Properties Evaluation and Characteristics of Instant Cereal from Coconut Cake

Zuwariah Ishak, Khairunizah Hazila Khalid , Faridah Hussin , Nik Mohd Faiz Che Mohd Noor , Mohd Fakhri Hashim

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 22, Issue 9, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2023/v22i9653

The instant coconut cereal was developed using a mixture design and ten formulations of cereal were produced using coconut cake, corn flour and brown rice flour. The characteristics and functional properties of instant cereal from coconut cake on dietary fiber, physical and nutritional analysis were studied. Based on the simplex-centroid design, coconut cake had an improving effect significantly on the total dietary fiber (TDF), insoluble dietary fiber, and soluble dietary fiber but, not significantly in colour. The best mixture giving optimal total dietary fiber, insoluble dietary fiber, soluble dietary fiber was that containing 100% coconut cake flour. The result for TDF showed that the top three with the highest fibre content were cereal 3, 15.25%; followed by cereal 7, 11.75% and cereal 5, 10.05%. The addition of brown rice flour showed the highest water absorption index compared to whole corn flour and coconut flour. On the other hand, addition of coconut cake significantly increased the water solubility index compare to whole corn flour. The bulk density of the drum-dried instant cereal ranged between 0.32 and 0.36 g/cm3. The moisture content of ten formulations of cereal in the study was within the recommended range. The protein content of the cereal (g/100 g of dry matter) was the lowest in cereal 8 (6.96) and the highest in cereal 3 (8.83). It also shows that the ten formulations of coconut cereal has an array of nutritional properties that varied according to flour proportion.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Duck Meat Maceration in Coconut Shell Liquid Smoke on the Quality of Duck Meat Sausage

Alzara Tanviana , Djalal Rosyidi , Agus Susilo

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 22, Issue 9, Page 11-22
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2023/v22i9654

This study aims to determine the effect of maceration of coconut shell liquid smoke in increasing the preference value of panelists and the quality of duck meat sausages both physically and chemically. This study was conducted in January 2023 at the Meat Processing Laboratory, Animal Product Technology Section, Faculty of Animal Science, Brawijaya University. The material used was duck meat sausage. This study used an experimental method with a completely randomized design consisting of 5 treatments and 4 replications. The results of the analysis showed that maceration of coconut shell liquid smoke produced no significant effect (P>0.05) on carbohydrates, protein content, ash content, fat content, moisture content, cooking loss, pH, and tenderness but had a very significant effect (P< 0.01) on the value of water holding capacity and organoleptic value. From this study, it could be inferred that maceration of coconut shell liquid smoke could help in reducing the value of cooking loss, moisture content, fat content, carbohydrates, and pH as well as increase the value of ash content, protein content, and water holding capacity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characteristics of Whole Wheat, Red Kidney Bean and Defatted Coconut Flour Blends and Its Application in Bread Production

Vachefon Heuvey Forwoukeh , Julius Amove , M. I. Yusufu

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 22, Issue 9, Page 23-39
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2023/v22i9655

Aim: To evaluate the functional, proximate and anti-nutrient content of flour blends and sensory properties of bread produced from blends.

Methodology: Flour was prepared from whole wheat (WW), red kidney bean (RKB) and coconut fruit (CF). It was than blend as follows: S1 (100% refined wheat), S2 (100% WW), S3 (90% WW, 5% RKB and 5% CF), S4 (85% WW, 10% RKB and 5% CF), S5 (80% WW, 15% RKB and 5% CF), S6 (75% WW, 20% RKB and 5% CF). Blends were subjected to functional, proximate and anti nutrient content analyses. Also the sensory attributes of breads produced from blends were determined.

Results: Water absorption, oil absorption, swelling, foaming, foaming stability and emulsification capacity increased respectively from 0.62±0.06g/ml (S1) to 0.92±0.01 g/ml (S6), 0.96±0.02g/ml (S1) to 1.42±0.03 g/ml (S6), 1.05±0.01 (S1) to 1.73±0.01 (S6), 11.47±0.02% (S1) to 13.20±0.05% (S6), 50.93±0.01% (S1) to 53.47±0.01% (S6), 41.43±0.03% (S1) to 43.36±0.01% (S6) while bulk density decreased from 0.84±0.01g/ml (S1) to 0.60±0.02g/ml (S6). Moisture, ash, fat, fiber, and protein content increased respectively from 12.23±0.03% (S1) to 13.44±0.01% (S6), 0.66±0.01% (S1) to 1.66±0.02% (S6), 0.22±0.3% (S1) to 2.57±0.01% (S6), 0.67±0.26% (S1) to 4.34±0.02% (S6), 10.70±0.12% (S1) to 13.06±0.03% (S6) while carbohydrate decreased from 75.52±0.33% (S1) to 64.93±0.04% (S6). Phytate, oxalate and tannins content increased respectively from 0.03±0.00mg/100g (S1) to 1.09±0.01mg/100g (S6), 0.02±0.02mg/100g (S1) to 0.14±0.01mg/100g (S6), 0.01±0.01mg/100g (S1) to 0.09±0.01mg/100g (S6). In term of overall acceptability sample S1 and S3 showed no significantly different (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: Addition of red kidney beans and coconut flour into whole wheat had significant (P<0.05) impact on the functional, proximate characteristic of flour. There sensory scores showed S3 to be suitable for bread.

Open Access Original Research Article

Corn, roasted African yam bean and solar dried bush mango, were processed into flours and was used to produce custard. The samples, cornstarch: roasted African yam bean: African bush mango flours (CSTF: AYBF: ABMF) were blended in the ratios of 90:5:5, 85:5:10, 80:5:15, 75:5:20, 70:5:25, respectively and were evaluated for chemical composition, functional properties, microbial quality and sensory properties. The addition of African bush mango significantly (p < 0.05) increased the moisture, crude fat, crude protein, ash content, and crude fiber from 7.27 to 8.87, 1.42 to1.85, 2.14 to 2.78, 7.45 to 7.89 and 1.32 to 1.69%, respectively while the addition of African bush mango decreased the carbohydrate from 80.39 to 76.92%, pro-vitamin A, vitamin B1, B2, B9 and vitamin C increased with addition of African bush mango from 0.88 to 1.82, 0.85 to 1.63, 0.39 to 0.62, 0.21 to 0.35 and 0.84 to 1.64 (%), respectively. The anti-nutrients phytate, oxalate, heamaglutenin, trypsin inhibitor, tannins, hydrogen cyanide and saponin significantly (p < 0.05) decreased from 2.89 to1.43 m­g100g-1, 0.59 to 0.47mg/100g-1, 0.76 to 0.48 HIUmg-1, 0.69 to 0.54 TIUmg-1, 19.94 to 11.91mg/100g-1, 2.43 to 0.82 mg/100g-1 and 0.59 to 0.42 mg/100g-1, respectively. The addition of African bush mango increased the swelling capacity, wettability, viscosity and gelation capacity from 4.32 to 5.75%, 37.33 to 43.67 sec, 1.31 to 2.278 cp and 21.67 to 23.33% while water absorption capacity and bulk density decreased with an increased African bush mango from 14.67 to10.67% and 1.18 to 0.84 g/dm-3. The total viable count ranged from 2.0x104 cfug-1 to 1.0x104cfu/g, except for the control which has high total viable count of 8.6 x103cfu/g.

Open Access Original Research Article

Introduction: Natural resources in North Maluku, especially in the field of fisheries, are very abundant, therefore reliable human resource support is needed to manage them, besides that skills and technology are needed to manage these resources. Resource management requires the following strategies: (a) to intervene in the market so that fish prices remain stable in North Maluku Province; (b) to ensure continuous and sustainable availability of raw materials, a strong and resilient trading system (logistics) is needed by establishing a fisheries logistics system equipped with a fish stocking center (stocking area); (c) intervention is needed in the form of a local government policy commitment to stabilize fish prices in traditional markets; (d) expanding processed products.

Research Purposes: This study was to produce surimi and then process it into fishball products and then carry out organoleptic tests including appearance, smell, taste and texture. The development of value-added processed products through the development of a modern processing industry that is competitive with the development of high value-added products that already have a market, for example breaded products, needs to be carried out to meet the ever-increasing consumer needs.

Methodology: The method used in this study is to use experimental methods on a scale lab, by taking advantage of the waste of the madidihang fish bone while the goal to be achieved in this study is to produce the flour surimi of the madidihang bone with concentration (a1, a2, a3, a4 and a5) the surimi are then used for product production (fish balls).  

Results: The results obtained in this study were to produce surimi from yellowfin meat of good quality, this was indicated when it was used for making fish balls which had very good gel strength. Another thing that resulted from this study was that the organoleptic tests including appearance, smell, taste and texture had very good values. Although the best treatment was A5 with a concentration of 3.2% yellowfin bone meal.

Conclusion: This study indicated that fish meatballs treated with fish bone meal A5 had the highest average value for all attributes including (appearance, smell, taste and texture) and the lowest score was in treatment A1.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on the Preparation and Shelf Life of Aloe Vera Juice

Md. Mehedi Hasan , Md. Momin Khan , Md. Entaduzzaman Jony, Farzana Akter , Md. Abdul Alim

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 22, Issue 9, Page 64-73
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2023/v22i9658

The study was carried out for the preparation of aloe vera juice. Four different formulations of juices were prepared. The products were analyzed for their storage studies, microbiological study and sensory evaluation. The storage studies were done at room temperature (28-30ºC) and refrigeration temperature (4-6 ºC) at 7-, 15-, 30- and 45-days interval. At room temperature it was observed that pH and TSS was increased, pH changed ranging at 0.12-0.23%. The acidity of the sample was decreased during with increasing this storage period. It was observed that vit-C degradation occurred in all sample at room temperature storage. The sample containing 35% water + 300 PPM KMS (sample B) lost highest amount of vit-C compare to others sample. All the samples preserved with KMS were found good in their color, flavor, sourness and sweetness but sedimentation was observed after 30 days of storage. The highest sedimentation was observed in the juice containing highest amount of aloe vera juice. The rate of sedimentation increased with increasing the storage period. At both storage conditions the fugal growth was visible after 30 days. The microbiological analysis after 45 day of storage period showed that the total viable count (Bacteria) was less in the sample containing 30% water + 200 PPM KMS (sample A) in comparison to another sample containing 35% water + 300 PPM KMS (sample B), 30% water + 300 PPM KMS (sample C) and 35% water + 200 PPM KMS (sample D). The sensory attributes of aloe vera juices were evaluated and found the sample A and sample C obtained highest color, flavor and overall acceptability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation, Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Composite Bread Produced from Wheat, Sweet Potatoes and Cashew Nut Flour

O. O. Tanko , T. O. Hussaina , N. S. Donaldben

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 22, Issue 9, Page 74-87
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2023/v22i9659

The physicochemical properties of Wheat, sweet potato and cashew nut flour blends were studied. The sweet potatoes were washed; peeled; sliced; dried, and milled to Flour. The cashew nuts were also sorted, cleaned and processed into Flour. The Wheat, sweet potato and cashew nut Flour were proportioned into different samples G1 (100:00:00). Control samples were 100 % wheat flour, G2 (80:10:10), G3 (70:20:10) and G4 (60:30:10) respectively. Bread from these different proportions was formulated. The functional, proximate, physical properties and sensory properties were determined. GENSTAT Statistical Software (version 17.0) was used for data analyses. The Data obtained showed the following ranges for Bulk density (0.83-0.84 g/ml), water absorption capacity (3.65-5.78 g/g), oil absorption capacity (1.73-2.76 g/g), swelling index (7.22-7.94) and pH (5.95-6.00). Proximate compositions of the Bread showed the following ranges for moisture (30.14-34.68 %), protein (7.89-13.03 %), fat (8.82-952 %), fibre (1.23-4.34 %), ash (0.56-2.02 %) and carbohydrates (38.86-51.37 %). The physical properties of the Bread ranged from 210.60-247.50 g, 1.27-2.40 mm, 328.70-440 cm3 and 1.33-2.10 for loaf weight, oven spring, loaf volume and specific volume, respectively. Sensory evaluation findings indicated that up to 30 % substitution of sweet potato flour and 10 % cashew nut flour for wheat flour was acceptable in bread formulation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physical Characteristics of the Development of Edible Film Gelatin-Xylitol Using Butterfly Pea Extract as an Antioxidant

Imam Ghiffari , Manik Eirry Sawitri, Dan Abdul Manab

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 22, Issue 9, Page 88-100
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2023/v22i9660

The study aims to determine a gelatin-xylitol edible film with the addition of butterfly pea extract (Clitoria ternatea L) using the Microwave Assisted Extraction method with optimal physical characteristics of the edible film. The research method uses the experimental method with calculations using a Completely Randomized Design (CRD), followed by Duncan analysis (DMRT) if there are significant or very significant effects in each treatment. This research method focuses on differences in the percentage of butterfly pea extract in the manufacture of gelatin-xylitol edible films with 5 treatments P0 (0%), P1 (1%), P2 (2%) P3 (3%), and P4 (4%) and 3 repetitions. The results of the second phase of the study showed the effect of different butterfly pea extracts on edible gelatin-xylitol. There was no significant effect (P>0.05) in the sedimentation test, L and a color, there was a significant effect (P<0.05) in the b color test analysis and in the antioxidant test analysis. The functional groups identified in the eggplant extract were alkanes, alkenes, fluorides, and aromatics. The analysis of the Scanning Electron Microscope test showed the presence of particles in the edible film was 3% addition of butterfly pea extract produces an edible film that has antioxidants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional and Antioxidant Properties of Resistant Starch-Based Flour Blends from Unripe Plantain, Pigeon Pea and Rice-Bran

Aderonke Adenike Oladebeye , Tayo Nathaniel Fagbemi , Oluwole Steve Ijarotimi

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 22, Issue 9, Page 101-112
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2023/v22i9661

Aim: The nutrients and antioxidants of blends of native resistant starch, acetylated resistant starch, and flours of unripe plantain, pigeon pea and rice bran were investigated as possible alternatives to functional food products in managing type-2 diabetes.

Place and Duration of Study: Food Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Food Science and Technology, and Functional Foods Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. From January, 2022 to January, 2023.

Methodology: Native resistant starch was isolated from plantain and was modified via acetylation. Five sample blends of native resistant starch, acetylated resistant starch, and flours of pigeon pea and rice bran were prepared, using Mixture Design Expert 11.0.0 and were coded as follows: PLF – (100% Plantain flour), used as a control sample; PLPRF – plantain flour: pigeon pea flour: rice bran flour (73.08:15.15:11.76); PSPRF – native plantain starch: pigeon pea flour: rice bran flour (73.08:15.15:11.76); AP1SPRF – acetylated plantain starch: pigeon pea flour: rice bran flour (73.08:15.15:11.76); AP2SPRF – acetylated plantain starch: pigeon pea flour: rice bran flour (70.67:18.15:11.18). The proximate compositions, minerals, amino acid profiles, α-amylase and α-glucosidase and in-vitro antioxidant potentials of the samples were compared with the commercial flour product, CRF (100% Cerolina flour: wheat and soybean produced by More Foods Lagos, Nigeria).

Results: The results showed that AP2SPR had the lowest moisture content (2.40%), highest ash content (4.63%) and lowest fat content (2.42%). K, Cu, Fe. Na, Zn and P were more relatively abundant in the blends than in PLF. Generally, the chemical compositions of the flour blends improved with the addition of quality protein, which extensively enhanced the mineral contents in terms of Ca, K, Fe, Zn and P. Total essential amino acids were higher in PLF and the flour blends than CRF, ranging from 35.18 (g/100g protein) in CRF to 41.81 (g/100g protein) in PLPRF whereas their total non-essential amino acids showed an opposite trend, ranging from 58.18 (g/100g protein) in PLPRF to 64.84 (g/100g protein) in CRF. Upon acetylation, total essential amino acids improved from 39.84 (g/100g protein) in PSPRF to 41.00 (g/100g protein) in AP1SPRF and 41.32 (g/100g protein) in AP2SPRF. Both AP1SPRF and AP2SPRF were able to reduce Fe2+ to Fe3+, scavenge DPPH, FRAP and ABTS and inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities.

Conclusion: The flour blends of AP1SPRF and AP2SPRF studied were a good source of resistant starch and bioactive ingredients that would be useful in a variety of dietary functional food products to manage type-2 diabetes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bio-ethanol Production from Strawberry by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Repeated Batch Abstract

Reza Robati , Elhamalsadat Mirahmadinejad , Farhad Ghasemi

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 22, Issue 9, Page 113-116
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2023/v22i9662

Bio-ethanol, is considered the cleanest fluid fuel, and can be a dependable substitution to non-renewable energy sources. The maturation of sugar parts of plant materials produces it. Due to their high sugar content and abundance of nutrients, berries are thought to be an excellent source of fermentation products. This examination saw how well the yeast "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" created ethanol from strawberries (Fragaria ananassa) in rehashed bunches. According to the findings, strawberry juice had a total sugar concentration of 41.87 g/l. The final bioethanol percentage, ethanol yield, and maximum productivity were, respectively, 6 g/l/h (g ethanol per liter of strawberry juice per hour), 35 g/l (g ethanol per liter of raspberry juice), and 7 g/l (g ethanol per liter of strawberry juice).

Open Access Original Research Article

Changes in the Physical Quality of Culled Layer Chicken Meat at Different Ultrasonic Time Levels

Revy Arina Roudhotul Khoiriyah , Khotibul Umam Al Awwaly , Agus Susilo

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 22, Issue 9, Page 117-121
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2023/v22i9663

Aims: This study aims to determine changes in the quality of culled layer chicken meat at different ultrasonic time levels based on Cooking loss, pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Tenderness and Color L*a*b*. the material used is culled layer chicken meat which has been ultrasonic.

Study Design: The method used in this research is experimental laboratory using Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 5 treatments and 4 replications.

Place and Duration of Study: Animal Product Technology Departement, Faculty of Animal Science, University of Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia, between September-November 2022.

Methodology: Ultrasonic treatment for 10 minutes (P1), 15 minutes (P2), 20 minutes (P3), 25 minutes (P4), and 30 minutes (P5). Parameters observed were Cooking loss, pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Tenderness and Color. Data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). If the data showed a significant difference, continued with Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT). 

Results: The average cooking loss value is 2.24-4.07; pH 6.21-6.40; EC 0.61-0.76; tenderness   6.9-10.8; color L* 45.79-51.62; a*6.30-6.54; b* 12.56-13.19.

Conclusion: The results showed that ultrasonic treatment with a different time in culled layer chicken meat had no significant effect (P>0.05) on the pH, EC, color but could have significant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Food Safety Practices among Smoked Fish Sellers in Ekiti State, Nigeria

R. S. Owoeye , J. O. Ijigbade , Adegbuyiro Olusola Bunmi

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 22, Issue 9, Page 122-130
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2023/v22i9664

This study was carried out to assess the food safety practices among the smoked fish sellers in Ekiti State, Nigeria. It aimed at describing the socio-economic characteristics of the smoked fish sellers; identifying the food safety practices, examining the determinants of using food safety practices, estimating the profitability of smoked fish and ascertaining the constraints to food safety practices among smoked fish sellers in the study area. Data, obtained through a multi-stage sampling technique, were analysed through the use of descriptive statistics and Tobit regression models. Result from socio-economic characteristics of the respondents revealed that smoked fish business was dominated by females (75.8%) who were majorly young people with the mean age of 45.5years. The majority of the respondents were married (59.1%). It was also revealed that most of the respondents were literate with different levels of education with the average family size of 6 persons. The respondents were fairly experienced with 41.7% of them had more than 10 years of involvement in smoked fish enterprise. Most of the respondents used charcoal (53.4%) and half drum kiln (57.5%) in smoking their fish. A larger percentage (33.3%) of the respondents sourced their capital from other sources. Majority (61.7%) of the respondents smoked other species of fish such as hake fish and herring fish etc. The smoked fish sellers (68.3%) had prior knowledge of food safety practices while the respondents (57.5%) had access to useful food safety practices. The majority (73.3%) of the respondents had no access to bank loans. This study revealed that the majority of the smoked fish sellers were food safety compliant. It revealed that the major food safety practices used by the respondents were sweeping of their workspace before and after processing (99.2%) and washing of their hands before and after processing (97.5%) The only place they were lacking was in the covering of their smoked fish, the study revealed only few (32.5%) of the smoked fish sellers covers their smoked fish. On the cost and returns, the study revealed the mean value of total cost to be ₦305,690 and the mean amount of the total income generated by the respondents to be ₦495,850. The total income was greater than the total cost, which implies that the business was profitable. The results of Tobit regression model analysis revealed that age, level of education, family size and access to useful food safety practices were found to significantly influence the number of food safety practices used by the respondents in the study area. On the constraints to the use of food safety practices, the study revealed that the respondents were facing different problems and the most prominent problem was the lack of storage facilities (88.3%).

Open Access Original Research Article

This study examined the effect of dietary supplementation of DHA-enriched micro algae diet on physical and technological properties of dairy milk fat in terms of the dynamic crystallization and melting behaviour. Two dairy cows were subjected to feeding regime of DHA-enriched micro algae diet and control diet. The experiment was carried out during 21-d to determine the normal (control) and DHA-enriched micro algae diet modified milk fat that were taken for further analysis. The melting and crystallization behaviour of the milk fat from the cows fed control and DHA-enriched micro algae diets was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Q1000 (TA Instruments, New Castle, DE, United States). DHA-enriched micro algae supplementation strongly affected the melting and crystallization properties of milk fat. Generally, the onset temperature (°C) of milk fat crystallization was significantly lower in DHA-enriched milk fat as compared to the control. The quantity of heat released by fat crystallization expressed as J/g (peak area) was significantly lower in enriched milk fat. DHA-enriched milk fat also had a lower peak maximum temperature as compared to control in all samples investigated. All melting curves displayed two peaks (lower melting and higher melting peaks) and for melting peaks, DHA-enriched milk fat melted at significantly lower temperature as compared to the control indicating an increase in the degree of unsaturation of milk fat. Melting offset temperature was significantly lower for DHA-enriched milk fat as compared to the control. It can be concluded that from the results of this study, micro algae supplementation significantly altered the milk fat composition and positively affected melting and crystallization behaviour of milk fat.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Different Packaging Methods on the Shelf Life of Cashew Nuts and Kernels

Olagbaju A. R. , Afolayan S. S ., Aina J. A. , Okusami (Ihum) T. A. , Ashonibare R. A. , Kurah A., Rahman M. O. , Alimi J. P.

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 22, Issue 9, Page 141-148
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2023/v22i9666

Cashew, Anacadium occidentale is a nut crop considered essential simply because it provides food and employment to millions of people in developing nations. It is cultivated mainly for its nut; a very important export commodity. Dried cashew nuts and kernels that are improperly packaged and stored are prone to spoilage and rejections both in local and export markets. This study was conducted to assess the effects of different packaging methods on the quality of cashew nuts and kernel. Two hundred (200) kg of cashew nuts were procured each, from four states, Oyo and Osun (Southwest); Kwara and Kogi (North Central) Nigeria. The nuts were dried using parabolic solar dryer fixed with data logger for three days. One kg sample in three replicates was taken from each State’s lot and analyzed for initial quality parameters using Nut count (NC) and Kernel Output Ratio methods (KOR). Two hundred kilograms kg of dried raw cashew nut (RCN) (10% MC) taken from 50 kg each from across the States were thoroughly mixed and divided into two lots of 100 kg each. The first lot of 100 kg was processed into kernels (PCK) while the remaining 100 kg was used for RCN storage studies. Physical, chemical microbiological and entomological analyses were evaluated on RCN and PCK at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 months. RCN was stored using three different types of packaging; Jute bag, paper-lined jute bag and paper-lined carton, while cashew kernels (PCK) were stored using five different types of packaging methods; Polythene, Polythene lined polypropylene, paper lined polyethylene, polythene lined carton and paper lined carton. Paper lined jute bag was the best packaging method for nut storage while, polythene lined polypropylene was the best for kernel storage. Cashew kernels are easily stored in smaller spaces than the nut (ratio 1:5).