Open Access Original Research Article

Organoleptic and Morphological Analysis of Citrus Peel Powder

Samridhi Singh, Sunita Mishra

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 11, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i11591

Aim: Processing of citrus fruits results in the production of a >40 million tons of by-products worldwide and a major part of this by product is its peels. These peels have the potential of acting as a good nutraceutical resource owing to its high dietary fibre content and phenolic content. However, these peels are under-utilised despite their claimed health benefits. This study evaluates the morphological structure and sensory attributes of sweet lime peel and orange peel powder.

Study Design: The present study was conducted in 3 phases-

  1. Collection of Raw Material
  2. Pretreatment & dehydration
  3. Processing into powder form.

Place and Duration of the Study: The present study was conducted in the Department of Food &Nutrition of Babasa.heb Bhimrao Ambedkar University Lucknow. The duration of the study is 6 months i.e. from Jan, 2022- July, 2022.

Methodology: Peels of sweet lime and orange were transformed into powder through solar drying followed by grinding. In the present study, we have compared the morphology and organoleptic constituents of orange peel powder (OPP) and sweet lime peel powder (SLPP). The morphology of the two samples was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and element composition was studied and analysed by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDX). Organoleptic and sensory attributes were analyzed by a 9 pointer hedonic scale rating. Peel powders were also compared for two functional properties i.e. their Solubility Index and Swelling Power.

Open Access Original Research Article

Use of Garden Cress (Lepidium sativum L.) Seeds to Produce some Healthy Bakery Products

Hayat M. N. Afify

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 11, Page 12-21
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i11592

Aims: The aim of this study is the utilization of Garden Cress seeds (Lepidium sativum L.) as natural sources of phenols, flavonoids and dietary fiber in salted biscuits

Methodology: Salted biscuits prepared by substitution of wheat flour with 5, 7.5 and 10% of garden cress powder. The biscuits were evaluated for their quality based on proximate analysis, phytochemical content, physical properties and sensory evaluation.

Results: Chemical analysis of garden cress powder showed higher contents of protein, fat, crude fiber and ash (19.17, 21.11, 8.21 and 4.94 g/100 g, respectively) compared to those in wheat flour. It had an increasingly protein and fat contents by increasing the substitution level with garden cress powder. Twenty-one phenolic compounds were identified in garden cress seed extract. Pyrogallol (12545.34 μg/100g) was the main phenolic compound followed by ρ-hydroxy-benzoic (3838.14μg/100g). Also, nine flavonoid compounds were quantitatively identified in garden cress seeds with hisperidin as the major component (34488.97μg/100g). The overall acceptability and other sensory parameters of the biscuits were affected in different ways by the addition of garden cress powder. Biscuits with 7.5% garden cress powder had the highest scores in all sensory parameters.

Conclusion: Salted biscuits with potential health benefits, good quality and acceptable sensory characteristics can be produced by substituting 7.5% of wheat flour with garden cress powder in the biscuit formula.

Open Access Original Research Article

Variance of Arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea) Starch Granule Morphology among Five Different Provinces in Sri Lanka

M. K. S. Malki, J. A. A. C. Wijesinghe, R. H. M. K. Ratnayake, G. C. Thilakarathna, K. A. P. Manamperi

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 11, Page 22-28
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i11593

Arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea) is an underutilized tuber crop in Sri Lanka that produces a gluten-free, easily digestible starch. This research aimed to determine the variance of arrowroot starch granular morphology among the plants grown in five different provinces (Western, North-Western, Southern, Sabaragamuwa, Uva). Arrowroot starch granules were observed using the light microscope and scanning electron microscope. Oval, irregular globular and spherical shapes were the predominant granule shapes for arrowroot. The mean percentage of oval shaped granules ranged between 48.46 % - 59.34 %.          The length and width of the granules were not significantly different among the five provinces. The length of the starch granules ranged between 42.91 - 45.86 µm while the width ranged between 30.81 – 32.32 µm. Arrowroot flour samples from five different provinces in Sri Lanka were not significantly different with regard to the starch granular morphology and therefore, arrowroot flour can be utilized in the local food industry without concerning their geographical locations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Process Conditions (Blanching Time and Temperature) on the Beta Carotene Content of Diced Orange Flesh Sweet Potato

S. N. Orjiakor, L. C. Okpala, C. U. Obiora, S. K. Okocha, E. N. Odoh

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 11, Page 29-37
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i11594

Optimization of process condition (blanching and drying) on the beta-carotene content of orange fleshed sweet potato (mother delight) using response surface methodology was studied. Sweet potatoes were washed, peeled, diced, blanched, and dried at various temperature ranges. Nutritional composition of the fresh and dried samples was determined using standard methods. A three-factor central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was used to study the effects of blanching time (X1), blanching temperature (X2), and drying temperature (X3) on the beta-carotene content of the orange fresh sweet potato. Fourteen experimental combinations were produced with six replicates at the center point to generate twenty (20) runs. The sweet potato was blanched at a temperature range of 60-900C for 3-5 minutes and dried at a temperature ranging between 70-800C. the result showed that the beta-carotene content of fresh sweet potatoes was 8403µg and dried ones ranged from 4401µg to 2826µg. Sweetpotato processed for 3mins (blanching time), at 900C (blanching temperature) and 700C (drying temperature) produced the maximum beta carotene. The experimental data was fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis and the quadratic model was highly significant (p<0.05).

Open Access Original Research Article

Production and Quality Evaluation of Selected Spices [Ginger (Zingiber officinale), Garlic (Allium Sativum), Tumeric (Curcuma longa) and Clove (Syzygium aromaticum)]

Sunmonu Basirat Afolake Ojubanire, Sulaiman Semiu Adedayo, Agbaje Rafiu, Olaoye Mufutau Bade, Israel Temitope Christiana

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 11, Page 38-48
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i11595

This study investigated the production and quality evaluation of selected spices [Ginger (Zingiber officinale), garlic (Allium sativum), turmeric (Curcuma longa) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum)]. The spices were labeled GP (garlic powder), TP (turmeric powder), CP (cloves powder) and GPW (ginger powder). The samples were evaluated for phytochemicals, β-carotene and minerals using standard procedures. The selected phytochemicals ranged as follows: (24.09 – 986.68 mg/g), phenol (150.85 – 2027.00 mg/g), flavonoids (32.55 – 2186.91 mg/g) and alkaloids (4.49 – 6.16 mg/g). The β-carotene content of samples ranged from 0.04 to 3.50 mg/g. For the selected mineral composition of samples, the results indicated; calcium ranged from 81.16 to 120.43 mg/g, potassium ranged from 129.35 to 815.28 mg/g, magnesium ranged from 10.59 to 160.80 mg/g, iron ranged from 1.01 to 14.86 mg/g and phosphorus ranged from 40.26 to 209.99 mg/g. The cloves powder (CP) had the highest level of tannin and phenol while turmeric powder had the highest β-carotene. Mineral content showed that potassium and calcium was more in ginger than other samples while others were high in turmeric powder.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of Caulerpa Flour (Caulerpa lentifera) as Functional Food Raw Material

Fifi Arfini, Meta Mahendradatta, . Metusalach, . Zainal, Sriwatti Malle

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 11, Page 49-54
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i11596

Aims: This research aims to study the process of making Caulerpa seaweed flour and extract; analyzed the antioxidant activity and inhibitory antibacterial activity of Caulerpa flour.

Study Design: The experimental design used in the first stage is the T-test by comparing the two washing treatments (3 times and 5 times), and in the second stage using a Completely Randomized Design.

Place and Duration of Study: The present study was conducted in Department of Aquatic Product Processing and Storage, Pangkep State Polytechnic of Agriculture. The duration of research is 6 month i.e from April, 2022 – September, 2022.

Methodology: The drying method is carried out by weighing fresh Caulerpa lentifera. samples and spread them on a baking sheet and in an oven to dry at 50°C. Caulerpa lentifera, which has been in powder form, will be analyzed for its antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The extraction process will also be carried out on Caulerpa lentifera flour and analyzed for its antioxidant and antimicrobial properties.

Results: The results of the first phase of the study showed that the 5 times washing process on Caulerpa seaweed resulted in better quality than 3 times washing with an antioxidant value of 115.36 ppm, the water content of 9.9%; ash content of 23.65%; Ca levels of 152.4 mg/100 g; fiber 41.24%; Iodine 31.08 g/g and 4.16% yield. Caulerpa flour had the highest antioxidant and antibacterial activity compared to ethyl acetate and methanol with a value of 109.40 mg/L and an inhibitory diameter of 6.88 mm against Escherichia coli.

Conclusion: The antioxidant activity of seaweed flour is in the medium category and has an inhibitory power against pathogenic bacteria E.coli, so it has the potential as a functional food.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Different Drying Methods on Quality Parameters of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Obtained from the Local Market of Bangladesh

Md. Masud Rana, Asif Wares Newaz, Nurul Habib, Naimul Hassan, Md. Faridullah, Md. Abu Talha, Abu Saeid

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 11, Page 55-63
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i11597

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of various drying methods on quality parameters such as proximate composition, rehydration characteristics, total volatile basic Nitrogen (TVB-N), and consumer acceptance of tilapia. Three different types of dryers, viz., ring tunnel dryer (RTD), oven dryer (OD), and smoke dryer (SD), were used for a specific period. The proximate composition of dried tilapia varied from each drying method. The moisture content of SD samples (25.33%) contains more moisture than others, while significantly lower moisture contents were observed in RTD. High protein levels (62.81%) and (61.69%) were found in a sample obtained from OD and RTD, respectively. The protein content was significantly (P≤0.05) reduced in SD tilapia (54.35%). The higher lipid contents found in RTD and OD samples were 7.48% and 7.49%, respectively. The highest ash contents were recorded in RTD (14.89%). TVB-N content ranged between 7.03 to 7.45 mg/100 g, and the lowest TVB-N value was observed in RTD products. The RTD products hold more water, and the rehydration rate was faster than others. The sensory characteristics of dried tilapia obtained from RTD had better in terms of odor, color, texture, and general appearance, except the texture of SD products, was found to be better as compared to others. Overall, the results demonstrated that RTD products compete with SD with few exceptions RTD would be the better choice for tilapia drying.

Open Access Original Research Article

The present study was undertaken with the objectives of evolving chakli containing green gram flour and moth bean flour to find out their acceptability and nutritive value. Chakli were prepared by using refined flour, green gram flour, moth bean flour, salt, red chilli powder and refined oil by substituting refined flour with green gram flour and moth bean flour. The different samples prepared were Control , Sample 1, Sample 2 and Sample 3 in the ratios of (refinedflour:green gram flour: moth bean flour) 100, 50:25:25, 50:45:5, 50:5:45 respectively. The developed chakli were sensory evaluated using nine point hedonic scale. Results showed that overall acceptability for  Sample 3 (7.85±0.81) Chakli were lying in between the category of ‘like very much and like extremely whereas  Control (7.6±1.53)  were lying in the category of ‘like moderately and like very much’ by panelists.Highest energy, protein, carbohydrate and fat content were observed in Sample2 Chakli (520.8 kilocalories), (17.5 gram), (65.3 gram) and (22.2gram) respectively. Likewise fiber, calcium and iron content were observed in Sample 3 Chakli (2.4 gram) (108.6 milligram) and (5.84 milligram) respectively. Chakli (Sample 3) was most acceptable and analysed for proximate and mineral content along with control sample. Result shows that chakli prepared with green gram flour and moth bean flour (Sample 3) was found to be higher in protein (15.8 gram), fibre (1.9 gram), ash (2.5%), moisture (5.2%), calcium (19 milligram) and iron (1.1 milligram) than control chakli. Thus replacement of traditional food like refined flour with green gram flour and moth bean flour for preparing chakli is feasible and beneficial too and also were very accepted.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of “Uchakiri”(Vitex doniana),“Uturukpa” (Pterocarpus santalinoides) and “Ewa” (Solanum americanum) Methanoic Extract on Iron Status of Rats

N. N. Umerah, U. V. Okolie, G. N. Onyeji, N. M. Oly-Alawuba, C. L. Egbuogu, P. C. Nwani, C. S. Ugwu

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 11, Page 71-80
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i11599

Background: Iron deficiency anaemia is a hidden hunger which can affect at every stage of human development especially pregnant women and children.

Aim: The study was carried out to ascertain the effect of “ewa”, “uturukpa” and “uchakiri” on iron status of rat.

Methods: The vegetables were purchased from Oriemba market Akpugo in Nkanu West Local Government Area of Enugu State. The vegetables were trimmed, washed with deionized water and drained. The vegetables were ground using electric blender. Methanolic extraction was done using a modified method. All the analysis were carried out using a standard method.

Results: The results obtained were 2.67-3.52 mg iron, 0.52-0.89 mg copper, 1.56-7.43 mg zinc, 2.42-120.70 mg calcium 10.16-39.10 mg magnesium, and 68.80-90.40 mg potassium. The mean serum ferritin, haemoglobin, packed cell volume and RBC all increased gradually after consumption of leaves extract.

Conclusion: The result showed that ethanol leaf extract of Vitex doniana, “ewa” and “uturukpa” posseses anti-anemic potentials that are capable of reducing the risk of iron deficiency anemia in the society.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Extrusion Process on Proximate Composition of Water Yam Based Noodles Analogue – A Response Surface Analysis

C. E. Kalu, I. C. Alaka, F. C. Ekwu, O. J. Ikegwu, Okwara N. Rph

Asian Food Science Journal, Volume 21, Issue 11, Page 81-98
DOI: 10.9734/afsj/2022/v21i11600

Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effect of extrusion process on proximate composition of noodles analogue from water yam, yellow maize, and African yam bean flour mixture. Flour blend from water yam, yellow maize, and African yam bean were produced and was used to extrude noodles analogue using a brabender single screw laboratory extruder (Duisburg DCE 330 model) fitted with 3.0mm die nozzle diameter. A central composite rotatable design with three variables, namely barrel temperature, feed moisture content  and screw speed and five level coded – a, -1, 0, +1,, +a, was used and data analyzed by regression analysis. Results showed that proteins of noodles analogue ranged from 12.40 to 22.16%; fat content ranged from 2.98 to 6.07%; fibre content ranged from 1.80 to 2.52%; ash content ranged from 6.21 to 9.50%; moisture content ranged from 11.05 to 12.47% and carbohydrate content ranged from 48.31% to 63.65% respectively. The coefficients of determinations (R2) were high and ranged from 0.9106 to 0.9747 at 5% level. The response surface plot suggested that the models developed had a good fit and the CCRD was effective in explaining the effect of the process conditions on noodles analogue as influenced by barrel temperature, feed moisture content, and screw speed of the extruder. The data obtained from the study could be used for control of product characteristics. The study indicated that improved noodles analogue produced from available and cheap roots, cereal and legumes such as water yam, yellow maize, and African yam bean can be produced for possible projection for the commercial production of noodles analogue.